5.3: Patch preparation
The preparation of patches for posting can be a surprising amount of work, but, once again, attempting to save time here is not generally advisable even in the short term.
Patches must be prepared against a specific version of the kernel. As a general rule, a patch should be based on the current mainline as found in Linus's git tree. It may become necessary to make versions against -mm, linux-next, or a subsystem tree, though, to facilitate wider testing and review. Depending on the area of your patch and what is going on elsewhere, basing a patch against these other trees can require a significant amount of work resolving conflicts and dealing with API changes.
Only the most simple changes should be formatted as a single patch; everything else should be made as a logical series of changes. Splitting up patches is a bit of an art; some developers spend a long time figuring out how to do it in the way that the community expects. There are a few rules of thumb, however, which can help considerably:
- The patch series you post will almost certainly not be the series of changes found in your working revision control system. Instead, the changes you have made need to be considered in their final form, then split apart in ways which make sense. The developers are interested in discrete, self-contained changes, not the path you took to get to those changes.
- Each logically independent change should be formatted as a separate patch. These changes can be small ("add a field to this structure") or large (adding a significant new driver, for example), but they should be conceptually small and amenable to a one-line description. Each patch should make a specific change which can be reviewed on its own and verified to do what it says it does.
- As a way of restating the guideline above: do not mix different types of changes in the same patch. If a single patch fixes a critical security bug, rearranges a few structures, and reformats the code, there is a good chance that it will be passed over and the important fix will be lost.
- Each patch should yield a kernel which builds and runs properly; if your patch series is interrupted in the middle, the result should still be a working kernel. Partial application of a patch series is a common scenario when the "git bisect" tool is used to find regressions; if the result is a broken kernel, you will make life harder for developers and users who are engaging in the noble work of tracking down problems.
- Do not overdo it, though. One developer recently posted a set of edits to a single file as 500 separate patches - an act which did not make him the most popular person on the kernel mailing list. A single patch can be reasonably large as long as it still contains a single *logical* change.
- It can be tempting to add a whole new infrastructure with a series of patches, but to leave that infrastructure unused until the final patch in the series enables the whole thing. This temptation should be avoided if possible; if that series adds regressions, bisection will finger the last patch as the one which caused the problem, even though the real bug is elsewhere. Whenever possible, a patch which adds new code should make that code active immediately.
Working to create the perfect patch series can be a frustrating process which takes quite a bit of time and thought after the "real work" has been done. When done properly, though, it is time well spent.