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Today, we’re pleased to announce that containerd (pronounced Con-Tay-Ner-D), an industry-standard runtime for building container solutions, has reached its 1.0 milestone. From Docker’s announcement in December of last year that it was spinning out its core runtime to its donation to the CNCF in March 2017, the containerd project has experienced significant growth and progress over the past 12 months. Within both the Docker and Kubernetes communities,  there has been a significant uptick in investment with contributions from independents and CNCF member companies alike including Docker, Google, NTT, IBM, Microsoft, AWS, ZTE, Huawei and ZJU.

Similarly, the maintainers have been working to add key functionality to containerd.  The initial containerd donation included methods for:

  • transferring container images,
  • container execution and supervision,
  • low-level local storage and network interfaces and
  • the ability to work on both Linux, Windows and other platforms.

Additional work has been done to add a:

  • complete storage and distribution system that supports both OCI and Docker image formats and
  • robust events system
  • A more sophisticated snapshot model to manage container filesystems

These changes helped the team build out a smaller interface for the snapshotters, while still fulfilling the requirements needed from things like a builder. It also reduces the amount of code needed, making it much easier to maintain in the long run.

The containerd 1.0 milestone comes after several months of in alpha and beta status, that allowed the team to implement many performance improvements: creation of a stress testing system, improvements in garbage collection and shim memory usage.

“In 2017 key functionality has been added containerd to address the needs of modern container platforms like Docker and orchestration systems like Kubernetes,” said Michael Crosby, Maintainer for containerd and engineer at Docker. “Since our announcement in December, we have been progressing the design of the project with the goal of making it easily embeddable in higher level systems to provide core container capabilities. We will continue to work with the community to create a runtime that’s lightweight yet powerful, balancing new functionality with the desire for code that is easy to support and maintain.”

containerd is already being used by Kubernetes for its cri-containerd project, which enables users to run Kubernetes clusters using containerd as the underlying runtime. containerd is also an essential upstream component of the Docker platform and is currently used by millions of end users. There is also strong alignment with other CNCF projects: containerd exposes an API using gRPC and exposes metrics in the Prometheus format. containerd also fully leverages the Open Container Initiative (OCI) runtime, image format specifications and OCI reference implementation (runC), and will pursue OCI certification when it is available.

Key Milestones in the progress to 1.0 include:

 

Notable containerd facts and figures:

  • 1922 GitHub stars, 401 forks
  • 108 contributors
  • 8 maintainers from independents and and member companies alike including Docker, Google, IBM, ZTE and ZJU .
  • 2949+ commits, 26 releases

Availability and Resources

To participate in containerd: https://github.com/docker/containerd/ .

Meet us at KubeCon

Learn more about containerd at KubeCon by attending Justin Cormack’s LinuxKit & Kubernetes talk at Austin Docker Meetup, Patrick Chanezon’s Moby session Phil Estes’ session or the containerd salon.

In this preview of Containers for Developers and Quality Assurance (LFS254) training course from The Linux Foundation, we’ve covered Docker installation, introduced Docker Machine, performed basic Docker container and image operations, and looked at Dockerfiles and Docker Volumes.

This final article in the series looks at Docker Compose, which is a tool you can use to create multi-container applications with just one command. If you are using Docker for Mac or Windows, or you install the Docker Toolbox, then Docker Compose will be available by default. If not, you can download it manually.

To try out WordPress, for example, let’s create a folder called wordpress, and, in that folder, create a file called docker-compose.yaml. We will be exporting the wordpress container on the 8000 port of the host system.

When we start an application with Docker Compose, it creates a user-defined network on which it attaches the containers for the application. The containers communicate over that network. As we have configured Docker Machine to connect to our dockerhost, Docker Compose would also use that.

Now, with the docker-compose up command, we can deploy the application. With docker-compose ps command, we can list the containers created by Docker Compose, and with docker-compose down, we can stop and remove the containers. This also removes the network associated with the application. To additionally delete the associated volume, we need to pass the -v option with the docker-compose down command.

 Want to learn more? Access all the free sample chapter videos now!

This online course is presented almost entirely on video, and the material is prepared and presented by Neependra Khare (@neependra), Founder and Principal Consultant at CloudYuga, Docker Captain, and author of the Docker Cookbook.

This series previews the new self-paced Containers for Developers and Quality Assurance (LFS254) training course from The Linux Foundation. In earlier articles, we installed Docker, introduced Docker Machine, performed basic Docker container and image operations, and looked at Dockerfiles and Docker Hub.

In this article, we’ll talk a bit about Docker Volumes and networking. To create a volume, we use the docker volume create command. And, to list the volumes, we use the docker volume list command.

To mount the volume inside a container, we need to use the -v option with the docker container run command. For example, we can mount the myvol volume inside the container at the /data location. After moving into the /data folder, we create two files there.

Next, we come out of the container and create a new container from the busybox image, but mounting the same myvol volume. The files that we created in the earlier container are available under /data. This way, we can share the content between the containers using the volumes. You can watch both of the videos below for details.

 To review Docker networking, we first create a container from the nginx image. With the docker container inspect command, we can get the container’s IP address, but that IP address would be given by the docker0 bridge, which would not be accessible from the external world. 

To access the container from the external world, we need to do port mapping between the host port and the container port. So, with the -p option added to the docker container run command, we can map the host port with the container port. For example, we can map Port 8080 of the host system with Port 80 of the container.

Once the port is mapped, we can access the container from the dockerhost by accessing the dockerhost on Port 8080.

 Want to learn more? Access all the free sample chapter videos now!

This online course is presented almost entirely on video, and the material is prepared and presented by Neependra Khare (@neependra), Founder and Principal Consultant at CloudYuga, Docker Captain, and author of the Docker Cookbook.

In this series previewing the self-paced Containers for Developers and Quality Assurance (LFS254) training course from The Linux Foundation, we’ve covered installing Docker, introduced Docker Machine, and some basic commands for performing Docker container and image operations. In the three sample videos below, we’ll take a look at Dockerfiles and Docker Hub.

Docker can build an image by reading the build instructions from a file that’s generally referred to as Dockerfile. So, first, check your connectivity with the “dockerhost” and then create a folder called nginx. In that folder, we have created a file called dockerfile and in the dockerfile, we have used different instructions, like FROM, RUN, EXPOSE, and CMD.

To build an image, we’ll need to use the docker build command. With the -t option, we can specify the image name, and with a “.” at the end, we are requesting Docker to look at the current folder to find the dockerfile, and then build the image.

On the Docker Hub, we also see the repositories — for example, for nginx, redis, and busybox. For a given repository, you can have different tags, which will define the individual image. On the repository page, we can also see a respective Dockerfile, from which an image is created — for example, you can see the Dockerfile of the nginx image. 

If you don’t have an account on Docker Hub, I recommend creating one at this time. After logging in, you can see all the repositories we’ve created. Note that the repository name is prefixed with our username.

To push an image to Docker Hub, make sure that the image name is prefixed with the username used to log into the Docker Hub account. With the docker image push command, we can push the image to the Docker Registry, which would, by default, go to the Docker Hub.  

DockerHub has a functionality called Docker automated builds, that can trigger a build on DockerHub as soon as you commit a code on your GitHub repository. On GitHub, we have a repository called docker-automated-build, in which we have a Dockerfile, using which the image will be created. In the real-world example, we would have our application code with Dockerfile.

To create the automated build, we need to first log into our DockerHub account, and then, link our GitHub account with DockerHub. Once the GitHub account is linked, we click on “Create” and then on “Create Automated Build.”

Next, we provide a short description and then click on “Create.” Then, we select the GitHub repository that we want to link with this DockerHub automated build procedure. Now, we can go to our GitHub repository and change something there. As soon as we commit the change, a Docker build process would start on our DockerHub account.

Our image build is currently in queue, which will be scheduled eventually, and our image would be created. After that, anybody would be able to download the image.

This online course is presented almost entirely on video, and the material is prepared and presented by Neependra Khare (@neependra), Founder and Principal Consultant at CloudYuga, Docker Captain, and author of the Docker Cookbook.

Want to learn more? Access all the free sample chapter videos now!